top of page


In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful 


The word Islam means “submission,” as in submission to the Will of Almighty God. God is referred to as 
Allah* in the Qur’an (the Holy Scripture). Muslims worship the same one God that Abraham, Moses and Jesus worshiped. Muslims believe in all the prophets that Christians and Jews believe in. According to the Muslim 
belief, Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him & his progeny) was the last prophet in the long line of prophets 
which started with Adam and included Abraham, Isaac, Ishmael, David, Solomon, Moses, John the Baptist and 
Jesus (peace be upon them all), to name a few. Muslims regard Prophet Muhammad as a human being with a 
divine mission; they do not worship Muhammad. 

Thus, Islam is not a new religion. According to the Qur’an, it was the religion of all the prophets of God, peace 
be upon them. They all submitted to God and they were all Muslims. They brought the same central message: 
worship God alone, not join any other deity with God, and do good deeds. 

A BRIEF LIFE HISTORY OF PROPHET MUHAMMAD (Peace be upon him & his progeny**) 

Muhammad was born in Mecca in the Arabian Peninsula in the year 570 AD. At the age of 40, Muhammad 
received God’s first revelation through the Angel Gabriel, and was instructed to guide the people. 

At that time, the majority of people in the region were pagans. Idolatry, sin, and immoral behavior were 
common. Women were ill-treated, sold, and had no legal status; female infants were even buried alive. The 
Arabs believed in and worshipped over 300 different gods. Muhammad, for the first three years of his ministry, 
preached about one God secretly and thereafter, on divine instructions, preached openly. Upon teaching the new 
faith, he was initially mocked and later on abused, persecuted, and tortured. The advent of Islam was seen by 
the pagans as an economic blow, since they depended to a large extent on the income from having many tribal 
gods, and from pilgrims that came to Mecca from different parts of Arabia to pay homage to their gods. The 
first converts emigrated to Abyssinia and sought asylum there under the Christian ruler, Negus, in order to save 
their lives. 

In 622 AD, at the age of 52 years, Muhammad left Mecca for Medina to save his life, as the pagans of Mecca 
had plotted to kill him. This event is referred to as Hijra or ‘migration,’ and this year constitutes the first year of 
the Muslim calendar. In Medina, Muhammad was welcomed with open arms by its people and amongst them, 
he found many friends and supporters. 

*The Arabic name “Allah” is equivalent to “God” in English, “Jehovah” in Latin, and “Yahweh” in Hebrew. **This formula after the 
name of the Prophet is to show respect. An abbreviation often used is (pbuh&p). 

In the subsequent years, Muhammad successfully defended himself and his people from several attacks by the 
pagans of Mecca who wanted to kill him and root out the new religion. Muhammad fought with a small and ill-
equipped band of his supporters against large and well-equipped forces. 

The Meccan pagans had signed several peace treaties with Muhammad but repeatedly broke them, and plotted 
again and again to kill him. Eventually, Muhammad and his followers marched towards Mecca, his homeland, 

and took control of the city without a struggle. The inhabitants of Mecca feared revenge for the atrocities 
committed against Muhammad and his followers, but Muhammad declared general amnesty. He gave orders 
that no one should loot or plunder. Soldiers were forbidden to enter any house that was inhabited. No one was to 
be attacked unless he refused to lay down arms. Women and children were protected from harm under strict 
orders. The Meccans were so moved by Muhammad’s generosity and compassion that they hastened in throngs 
to swear allegiance to him. Finally, Muhammad removed all the idols from the Kaba, the symbolic House of 
God, which was built by his forefather, Prophet Abraham, many centuries earlier. 

Eventually, deputations from all parts of Arabia came to Medina to meet the Prophet and to listen to the Holy 
Scripture, the Qur’an. The prophet also sent emissaries to neighboring countries in order to convey the message 
of Islam. 

The Prophet, in fact, had become the virtual ruler of Arabia. His lifestyle, however, remained as simple as ever. 
In the tenth year after Hijra, after performing the pilgrimage, called the Hajj, Muhammad addressed his 
followers who had gathered in the thousands, and announced his impending departure from this world. At that 
time, he received the divine revelation that the religion of God had been completed and perfected. That was the 
final revelation from God conveyed by the Angel Gabriel to Muhammad. In that same year, he died after a brief 
illness, at the age of 62 years. 

Thus, in a brief span of 23 years, Muhammad had abolished idolatry in Arabia and had established God’s 
religion, Islam. He brought civilization, law, order, and decency to a land and a people known for idolatry, 
oppression, and lewdness. 


The scripture Qur’an enjoins total obedience to Prophet Muhammad. A believer is commanded to show him the 
utmost respect. Whenever his mere name is mentioned, the believer sends peace upon him and invokes God’s 
blessing upon him. The Qur’an clearly states that the Prophet has greater right on the believers than they have 
on themselves. 

The following quotes from the Qur’an will demonstrate the status of Prophet Muhammad in the eyes of the 

“And most surely you (Prophet) conform to sublime morality.” Chapter 68, verse 4 

“Surely God and His angels bless the Prophet; O’ you who believe! Call for (divine) blessings on him and 
salute him with a (becoming) salutation.” Chapter 33, verse 56 

“Surely (as for) those who speak evil things about God and His Apostle, God has cursed them in this world …” 
Chapter 33: verse 57 

“O’ Prophet, surely We have sent you as a witness and as a bearer of good news and as a Warner, and as one 
inviting to God by His permission, and as a light-giving torch.” Chapter 33: verses 45 & 46 

“Certainly you have in the Apostle of God an excellent exemplar, in him who hopes in God and the latter 
(judgment) day, and remembers God much.” Chapter 33: verse 21 

“The Prophet has greater claim on the faithful than they have on themselves,” Chapter 33: verse 6. 

“And We have sent you not but as a mercy to the worlds.” Chapter 21: verse 107 

“Say: Obey God and the Apostle,” Chapter 3: verse 32. 

“O’ you who believe! Do not raise your voices above the voice of the Prophet, and do not speak loud to him as 
you speak to one another, lest your deeds become null while you do not perceive. Surely, those who lower their 
voices before God’s Apostle are the ones whose hearts have been tested for piety;” Chapter 49: verses 2, 3. 

Prophet Muhammad measured up to the highest standard divinely laid for him. Historians, philosophers, 
students of world religions, and world leaders have nothing but flowing praise for his noble personality, as well 
as his spiritual and temporal accomplishments. 

(For quotes from non-Muslim writers about Prophet Muhammad, please refer to the section on explanatory 
notes, page 40.) 

Thus it is clear that giving the utmost respect, bestowing the highest honor, and holding the Prophet dearer than 
one’s own life is integral part of the faith of a Muslim. Most non-Muslims, especially in the west are unaware of 
this important aspect of Islamic faith and do not understand the sensitivity of Muslims in this respect. Drawing 
the very picture of the Prophet is considered sacrilegious, and prohibited in Islam. It must be emphasized that 
Islam teaches peace, tolerance, forgiveness, compassion, sanctity of life, and treating others with respect. 
Violence, unlawful behavior, hurting others, and causing damage to the property of others is strictly prohibited. 
Those who indulge in such behavior are acting outside the teachings of Islam. 


Abraham is considered the common ancestor of the three major religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. 
From his son Isaac’s lineage came many prophets, including Jacob, Joseph, Solomon, David, Moses and lastly 
Jesus (peace be upon them all). Muhammad was the direct descendant of Prophet Abraham through his son, 
Ishmael. The advent of Prophet Muhammad was the fulfillment of God’s promise to Abraham. The Bible says: 

“I will make you a great nation. I will bless you and make your name so famous that it will be used as a 
blessing.” Genesis 12:2. 

“For Ishmael too I grant you your request: I bless him and I will make him fruitful and greatly increased in 
numbers. He shall be the father of twelve princes, and I shall make him a great nation.” Genesis 17:20-21 

“But the slave girl’s son I will also make into a nation, for he is your child too.” Genesis 21:13 

“The prophet like unto Moses.” According to Muslim belief, Prophet Muhammad was the prophet 
prophesied in the Bible to come after Prophet Jesus. (For details please refer to the section on explanatory 


A Muslim believes in one supreme deity (Allah or God), all the divinely commissioned prophets of God, all 
the divinely revealed Books (the Torah, the Bible and the Qur’an), the Angels, the life after death, the Day of 
Judgment, and the concept of Heaven and Hell (reward and punishment for our deeds.) 

The Fundamentals of the Beliefs are: 

. Absolute oneness of God.* God has no partners, no associates, no helpers, no consorts, and no sons. When 
He intends a thing, He only says to it “Be”, and it “Is”. 
. Justice of God. God is just in His dealings with His creation. 
. Belief in all the prophets of God, including the last prophet, Muhammad, peace be upon them all. Also 
recognize the Imams (spiritual guides) from among the descendants of the prophet. 

. Day of Judgment. Everyone shall experience death. There will be resurrection and accounting on the Day of 
Judgment. God will reward, punish, or forgive as He sees fit. 
The Obligatory acts of Worship include: 

Obligatory Prayers (called Salaat) A Muslim is required to offer five ritual prayers a day: morning (before 
sunrise), mid-day, mid-afternoon, evening (soon after the sunset), and night (after darkness sets in.) 

Fasting (called Siyam) is observed during the entire month of Ramadan. This is the 9th month of the Muslim 
lunar calendar. The daily fast begins about an hour and a half before sunrise and ends after sunset. During the 
fast a Muslim is not allowed to eat, drink, chew, or smoke. Sex is prohibited during the hours of fasting, 
although it is permitted at other times. The month of Fasting is to achieve the good pleasure of God and His 
nearness. During the fast a Muslim must avoid arguments, loose talk, lying, backbiting, and pleasure seeking 
activities. Frequent remembrance of God, the giving of alms to the needy, and other charitable activities are 

Charity (called Zakat and Khums) This is a portion of the saving that is given annually to the poor, the 
widows, the orphans, and the indigent, and also towards the maintenance of mosques, religious institutions, 
religious schools, and other deserving causes. 

Pilgrimage (called Hajj) to the Kaba (symbolic House of God in Mecca) at least once in a lifetime. This house 
was originally built by Prophet Abraham with the help of his son, Ishmael. 


Certain food items are prohibited to Muslims. These include pork and all pork products, meat from animals that 
died of natural causes, that were killed by wild animals, etc., and blood from animal sources. Similar to Jewish 
Law, only designated animals sacrificed in the prescribed manner are permitted to be used for food, and not all 
body parts are permitted. All forms of intoxicants are prohibited. 


It is also called “Koran” (not a preferred term) in English. This is the Holy Scripture, the word of God that the 

angel Gabriel brought to Muhammad. Muhammad repeated these verses to his followers, who memorized them 
and also wrote them down. The divine messages came over a period of 23 years. 

To date, the text of the Qur’an has remained intact in its original language, Arabic, unaltered by man or time. 
The Qur’an contains laws and commandments governing all aspects of the life of a Muslim. It also contains 
narrations of the life histories of the earlier Prophets, and parables to guide the reader. The Qur’an and the 
traditions or sayings of the Prophet (pbuh&p) constitute the guiding light for the Muslim in his/her day-to-day 

The two most often recited Chapters or Surahs of the Holy Qur’an are: (1) The Opening Chapter, referred to as 
Fatihah and (2) The Unity Chapter, referred to as Ikhlas. They are listed below. 

Fatihah (Opening Chapter) 

In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful. 

Praise be to God, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the worlds;
the Beneficent, the Merciful.
Master of the Day of Judgment.
Thee alone we worship and Thee alone we ask for help.
Show us the straight way.
The way of those whom Thou has favored.
The way of those who did not earn Thy anger, and who did not go astray.

Ikhlas (Unity) 

In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful.
Say: He is God, the One and the only.
God, the Eternal, the Absolute (free of all needs).
He begetteth not, nor was He begotten; And there is none equal unto Him.

Some of the proofs that the Qur’an was divinely revealed are: 

Many Jewish and Christian scholars at the time of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh&p) recognized the Holy Scripture 
as the true word of God and acknowledged Prophet Muhammad as a true Prophet of God, and embraced Islam. 

It is to be noted that: 

3 Muhammad was untutored and unlettered. He received no formal or informal instruction in reading or 

The wisdom, the knowledge, and the literary eloquence contained in the Qur’an are unmatched and beyond 
the scope of human endeavor. 

3 The statements made in the Qur’an about sciences such as physics, biology, astronomy, etc. reveal 
knowledge that did not exist with humankind at the time of Muhammad. Those statements have been 
verified hundreds of years later through the discoveries of modern science. 

Since the time of Muhammad to the present day, Islam continues to be accepted by more and more people in all 
parts of the world. Today Islam is the faith of one-fifth of the population of the world. Islam offers to mankind 
dignity, equality, and justice. 

“God, according to the Qur’an, guarantees direct access to Himself. He says in the Qur’an: “I answer the prayer 
of the supplicant when he calls unto Me.” (2:186) 

The authenticity of the Qur’an is undisputed. The Qur’an holds a unique place among the scriptures because 
only one version has existed from the very beginning. Many faithful Muslims have continued the tradition of 
memorizing the entire scripture, thus guarding it against any change. Even a single letter of the original Arabic 
text has not been changed. 

The Qur’an is free from any discrepancies or contradictions. This is particularly amazing, considering the fact 
that the messages were revealed in stages over a period of twenty-three years! 

Western scholars’ views on the Qur’an. 

“A work, which calls forth so powerful and seemingly incompatible emotions even in the distant reader -
distant as to time and still more so as mental development. A work, which not only conquers the repugnance, 
which the reader may feel as he begins its perusal, but changes this adverse feeling into astonishment and 
admiration. Such a work must be a wonderful production of the ‘human mind’ indeed and a problem of the 
highest interest to every thoughtful observer of the destinies of mankind.” -Dr. Steingass in T.P. Hughes’s 

Dictionary of Islam, p.526. 

“The hypothesis advanced by those who see Muhammad as the author of the Qur’an is untenable. How a man, 
from being “illiterate” (untutored), could become the most important author, in terms of literary merit in the 
whole of Arabia? How could he then pronounce truths of a scientific nature that no other human being could 
possibly have developed at that time, and all this without once making the slightest error in his pronouncement 
on the subject?” -Maurice Buccaille in “The Bible, the Qur’an and Science,” p.125. 

Some of the verses in the Qur’an, which came in response to criticism by the unbelievers and the skeptics, 
are as follows: 

“And if ye are in doubt concerning that we reveal unto our servant (Muhammad) then produce a Chapter of the 
like thereof...” (2:23) 

“And before this was the book of Moses, as a guide and a mercy. And this Book confirms (it) in Arabic, to 
admonish the unjust, and as glad tidings for the righteous.” (46:12) 

The Qur’an confirms that the earlier prophets, including Moses and Jesus, were true messengers of God. The 
previous scriptures, the Torah and the Bible, in their original forms were the true messages from God. The true 
purpose of the Qur’an is to restore and safeguard the message of God in its totality. 

Commandments. This term is not specifically used in the Qur’an. However, after reading the Qur’an one 
learns the injunctions contained therein. A partial list is given below: 

1. To believe in one God. 
2. To honor and respect parents. 
3. To honor the human rights of all people, regardless of their religion. 
4. Be charitable, but do not be prodigal. 
5. Do not kill except for justifiable cause. 
6. Do not commit adultery or fornication. 
7. Safeguard the possessions of orphans. 
8. Deal with others with justice. 
9. Be pure in heart and mind. 
10. Be humble and unpretentious. 
11. Do not backbite. 
12. Do not be a scandalmonger. 
13. Do good deeds for the love of God. 
14. God loves those who forgive. 

15. God is with those who patiently persevere. 
16. Help your neighbor. 

“And when Jesus, son of Mary, said; O Children of Israel, lo! I am the messenger of God unto you, confirming 
that which was revealed before me and in the Torah, and bringing good tidings of a messenger who cometh 
after me, whose name is ‘Praised One’. Yet, when he has come unto them with clear proof, they say ‘This is 
mere magic!”(61:6) 

“And they say, ‘God had taken unto Himself a son.’ Be He glorified! Nay, but whatsoever is in the Heavens and 
whatsoever is in the earth is His. All are subservient to Him.” (2:116) 

“She [Mary] said (to the angel), ‘My lord! How can I have a son when no mortal has touched me?’ He said, 
‘So it will be. God createth ‘what He wills’. If He decreeth a thing, He only says unto it, ‘Be,’ and it Is.”(3:47) 

“Lo! The likeness of Jesus with God is as the likeness of Adam. He created him out of dust, then He said unto 
him, ‘Be!’, and he was.” (3:59) 

“When God says; O Jesus, son of Mary, remember My favor unto thee and unto thy mother. How I strengthened 
thee with Holy spirit, so thou speakest unto mankind in the cradle, as in maturity, and how I taught thee the 
scripture and wisdom and the Torah and the Gospel.” (5:110) 

The fundamental difference between the Muslim belief and the Christian belief is the position 
of Jesus. While both Muslims and Christians believe in Jesus, the majority of Christians also 
regard Jesus as “the son of God,” and “God in the flesh”, which the Muslims reject. Muslims 
regard Jesus as a chosen Prophet of God. This is clearly stated in the Qur’an, and God strongly 
rebukes the notion of Trinity. 


“Say: we believe in God and that which is revealed unto us, and that which was revealed unto Abraham and 
Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the tribes, and that which Moses and Jesus received, and which the prophets 
received from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and unto Him we have surrendered.” 

“Surely We have revealed to you, as We had revealed to Noah, and the Prophets after him, and We revealed to 
Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac, and Jacob and the tribes, and Jesus and Job, and Jonah and Aaron and 
Solomon, and We gave to David the Psalms.” (4:163) 


Prophet Abraham is referred to as “Muslim” in the Qur’an, meaning that he submitted to the Will of God. 

He is referred to as “friend of God” and “upright in faith.” According to the Qur’an, because he believed in 
God Almighty, Abraham was thrown into a huge fire by his people, who were idol worshippers. Abraham was 
unwavering in his conviction and God prevented the fire from causing him any harm. In obedience to God’s 

command Abraham “sacrificed” his son Ishmael. This was a great trial for Abraham, but he was successful. 
God was pleased with him, and He saved Ishmael from harm. Whenever Prophet Muhammad introduced a new 
Law or Ritual to the Muslims, they would ask him where it came from. He would answer that it was from the 
tradition of his ancestor, Prophet Abraham. 


God says in the Qur’an: “Lo! Those who believe and those who are Jews and Christians and Sabeans. Whoever 
believes in God, the last day, and does right, surely, their reward is with their Lord, and there shall no fear 
come unto them. Neither shall they grieve.” (2:62) 


In the following paragraphs, some of the verses from the Qur’an, dealing with various scientific facts, 
are presented. For the sake of convenience, these are grouped d under various headings. For a more detailed 
study, the reader is referred to the book “The Bible, The Qur’an and Science,” by Dr. Maurice Bucaille. 

About the creation of the heavens and the earth 

“Do not the unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together, then we clove them asunder 
and We got every living thing out of the water? Will they not then believe?” (21:30) 

The above verse might be a reference to the origin of the universe with an explosion. The modern Big Bang 
theory of the origin of the universe also postulates an explosion. 

The word “smoke” here refers to the gaseous material with particles suspended in it. This corresponds to the 
concept of the “Primary Nebula” put forward by modern science, which consisted of hydrogen and helium. 

“Your Lord is God who created the Heavens and the Earth in six days (periods)...In a day whereof the measure 
is as a thousand years of your reckoning.” (32:5) 

“Moreover (God) turned to the heaven when it was smoke and said to it and to the earth: Come willing or 
unwilling; they said: We come in willing obedience.” (41:11) 

The time taken for the creation of the Heavens and the Earth is not to be taken in a literal sense. As explained in 
the Qur’an, what we call a day by our earthly yardstick is not the same as a day by the heavenly yardstick. This 
is consistent with modern scientific knowledge, which estimates the age of the Earth and sun in millions of 

*For more on Prophet Jesus and Virgin Mary, please refer to the section “Jesus and virgin Mary in the Qur’an.” 
**Who is a Prophet of God? Arabic names for Biblical Prophets. Please refer to explanatory notes. 

“Did you see how God created seven Heavens one above another and made the moon a light therein and made 
the sun a lamp”. (71:15-16) 

It is well known to modern science that in the universe there is a plurality of galaxies, with many galaxies and 
many suns larger than ours. 

Astronomy in the Qur’an 

“God is the one who created the night, the day, the sun, and the moon. Each one is traveling in an orbit with its 
own motion.” (21:33) 

Modern scientific knowledge has shown that our galaxy revolves on its own axis. The sun is located 
eccentrically and thus revolves in an orbit around the center of the galaxy. This was not known to man 1400 
years ago. The concept of motion of the heavenly bodies with an orbit of their own belongs to modern science. 
Earlier scientists regarded the sun as a stationary object. 

“Has thou not seen how God merges the night into the day and merges the day into the night?” (21:29) 
“He coils the day upon the night and coils the night upon the day.” (39:5) 

Astronauts have described the appearance of the Earth from space. The sun lights up half of the earth facing it 
and the other half is dark. As the earth rotates on its axis, the darker areas come to light, and the light areas 
merge into darkness. This is easy to understand at the present time. However, 1400 years ago this knowledge 
did not exist. In those days the earth was mistakenly thought to be flat and at the center of the universe. Modern 
scientific data are in full agreement with the Qur’anic description. 

“God subjected the sun and the moon, each one runs its course to an appointed term.” (33:2) 

Modern science has estimated the age of the sun and has also estimated when it will run out of hydrogen and 
will cool off. Modern astronomy has discovered that the solar system is moving towards a point in the 
constellation of Hercules, named the Solar Apex. 

About the expansion of the universe 

“The heaven, we have built it with power. Verily, we are expanding it.” (51:47) 

The gradual expansion of the universe is one of the most important discoveries of modern times. 

About the conquest of space 

“O Assembly of Jinn (spirits) and men, if you can penetrate regions of the heavens and the earth, then penetrate 
them! You will not penetrate them save with a power.” (55:33) 

This refers to man’s entry into space and the exploration of the depths of the earth. 

About the water cycle 

“We sent down water from the sky in measure, and lodged it in the ground. And we certainly are able to 
withdraw it. Therewith for you, we gave rise to gardens of palm trees and vineyards.” (23:18-19) 

“Has thou not seen that God sent water down from the sky and let it through sources into the ground? Then He 
caused sown fields of different colors to grow.” (39:21) 

The water cycle as we know it today was described 500 years ago. Before that, many people believed that water 
from the ocean was thrust into soil which formed springs and underground reservoirs. It was also thought that 
moisture in soil condensed to form water. The Qur’an gave the correct view in an authoritative way 1400 years 

About the mountains 

“We have placed in the ground (mountains) standing firm, so that it does not shake with them.” (21:31) 
“Have We not made the earth an expanse and the mountains stakes?” (78:6-7) 

According to modern theories, mountains played a key role in the formation and stability of landmass. They 
also contribute to the stability of the earth’s crust, which is relatively very thin. Beneath the crust are molten 
rocks at very high temperatures. Qur’anic description and modern scientific discoveries are in agreement. 

About the effects of high altitude 

“Those who God wills to guide, He opens their breasts to Islam. Those who He wills lose their way, He makes 
their breasts narrow and constricted, as if they were climbing the sky.” (6:125) 

This refers to breathlessness or “air hunger” due to the decreased quantity of oxygen available at high altitude. 
This is an accurate yet surprising statement, because high mountain climbing, air travel, etc. were not available 
at that time. 

About the origin of life on earth 

“God created every animal from water.” (24:45)
“And We got every living thing out of water. Will they then not believe?” (21:30)

Modern scientific data indicate that life is of aquatic origin and water is the major component of the living cell. 
Mankind did not know this in Muhammad’s time. 

About the Vegetable kingdom. 

About the balance in the vegetable kingdom: 

“The earth...We caused all kinds of things to grow therein in due balance.” (15:19) 

Reproduction in the vegetable kingdom... 

“God is the One who sent water down from the sky and thereby, We brought forth pairs of plants each separate 
from the other.” (20:53) 

“Glory be to Him who created components of couples of every kind: of what the ground caused to grow, of 
themselves (human beings) and of what you do not know”. (26:36) 

The last two verses above clearly indicate the two sexes, not only in the vegetable kingdom but in other 
creatures not known to man at the time of Muhammad, but discovered later on. The use of word ‘things’ refers 
to pairs in higher living form, lower living forms like smaller animals, birds, insects, members of plant 
kingdom, also inanimate creation including, electricity which has positive and negative charge, atomic particle 
which consists of electrons and protons. It appears that all things we know are in pairs of opposites. 

About the Animal kingdom 

“God fashioned the two of a pair, the male and a female, from a small quantity of liquid, when it is poured out.” 

In the above verses the reproduction of the animal kingdom is stated in a general but precise way. The word 
used in Arabic signifies sperm. 

Animal Communities 

“There is no animal on earth, no bird, which flies on wings that (does not belong to) communities like you. We 
have not neglected anything in the Book (of decrees.) Then to their Lord they shall be gathered.” (6:38) 

The existence of true communities amongst animals, insects, etc., has been established only in the last few 

About formation of milk 

“Verily in your cattle, there is a lesson for you! We give you a pure milk to drink, excellent for its drinkers; 
(it comes) from what, inside their bodies, is between digested food and blood.” (16:66) 

The above verse describes in general but accurate terms the formation of milk from the product of digested 
food, which mixes with blood and is carried to the mammary glands that secrete it. Man did not know this at the 
time of prophet Muhammad. In fact, the discovery of the circulation of blood was made some ten centuries after 
the Qur’anic revelation 

About human reproduction 

Qur’an has made many references to various facts about human reproduction in precise and accurate terms. 
Professor Keith Moore, who has written a well-known book on embryology (study of human reproduction), has 
verified the accuracy of the Qur’anic statements. Scientific knowledge about human reproduction was 
incomplete until recent times. Use of the microscope was indispensable for the study of development of a fetus 
in the mother’s womb. The sperm and the ovum (egg) are so small; they are invisible to the naked eye. The 
microscope was invented in the 17th century AD 

“He makes you in the womb of your mother in stages, one after another, in three veils of darkness.” (39:8) 

The three veils of darkness or layers have been identified by biologists as (1)Abdominal wall, (2)Uterine wall, 
and (3) Amniochorionic membrane (a sac filled with fluid in which the fetus floats). 

“Man We did create from a quintessence of clay, and then We placed as a drop of sperm, in a place of rest,
firmly fixed. Then We made the sperm into a clot of congealed blood; then of that clot, We made a leech-like
lump. Then we made out of that lump bones and clothed the bones with flesh; then We developed out of it
another creature. So blessed be God, the best to create.”

“Then out of a morsel (chewed up) of flesh, partly formed and partly unformed.” (22:5) 

According to Professor Keith Moore, the above is a surprisingly accurate description of human development in 
the uterus. The word “chewed up flesh” and “leech-like clot,” precisely describe the appearance and 
characteristics of the developing embryo and the product of conception. 

“And He made his progeny from a quintessence of the nature of a fluid despised.” (32:8) 

“Verily We created man from a drop of mingled sperm in order to try him, So, We give him (the gifts of) 
hearing and sight.” (76:2) 

The word ‘despised’ refers to the fact that semen comes out through the same route as does the urine. “Mingled 
fluid” refers to the various secretions that semen is made up of. Also, semen mixes with fluids in the female 
genital tract. 

“That He did create in pairs, male and female, from a seed when lodged in its place.” (53:45) 

The above verse refers to the fact that sex is determined at the time of fertilization. This discovery was made 
only sixty years ago, when sex chromosomes were discovered. Thus it is clear that the information in the 
Qur’an about human reproduction is of divine origin, and was beyond the knowledge of a human being at the 
time it was revealed. 

(The translation of Qur’anic verses given above is by Doctor Maurice Bucaille.) 


Since its inception 1400 years ago, several major schools have evolved among the Muslim. Sunni Muslims 
constitute approximately 80%, Shi’ite Muslims constitute approximately 15%, and other groups make up the 

The majority of Sunni Muslims follow the teachings of Prophet Muhammad as interpreted by various Imams 
and scholars. The Shi’ite Muslims follow the teachings of Prophet Muhammad as interpreted by Imam Ali, the 
son-in –Law, cousin, and the fourth Khalif of Islam, additionally they follow the teachings of the pious Imams 
from his family. 

The differences among Muslims occurred after the death of Prophet Muhammad, in regard to his succession, 
and were in part of a political nature. Tribal loyalties also played a part. Many Muslims at that time did not want 
the successors of the Prophet to stay in his family. They preferred an older person in preference to the young 
man, Ali. The Sunni Muslims believe that the succession to Prophet Muhammad was left up to the people to 
decide. Whereas the Shi’ite Muslims believe that Prophet Muhammad had designated his cousin and son-in-
law, Ali, as his successor. Over the years, rulers and some religious leaders have exploited these differences in 
order to achieve their selfish and material objectives. 

It must be emphasized that the fundamentals of the faith are common to all Muslims. All Muslims believe in 
one God. All Muslims follow the same Qur’an. All Muslims believe in Prophet Muhammad and strive to 
emulate him. All Muslims agree upon the basic tenets and Pillars of Islam. 


Islam has been largely misunderstood in the west. The reasons can be traced back to the era of the Crusades. 
Ignorance, fear, suspicion, etc. prevented the followers of other major faiths from an objective and impartial 
study of the religion. The result was that numerous misconceptions, false stories, and biased accounts about 
Islam came to be accepted as “true” even by Christian scholars and historians. Some of the misconceptions are 
listed below: 

Misconception #1 -Allah is “God of the Muslims” 

Many Christians believe that Allah is different from the God of Jesus. The fact is that “Allah” in Arabic simply 
means The God, as does “Yahweh” in Hebrew, “Dieu” in French, and “Gott” in German. He is the same one 
God, the Omnipotent and the Omnipresent Deity, the Creator, Sustainer, and Cherisher of the universe. 

Misconception #2 -“Muslims worship Muhammad” 

It is a common misunderstanding that “Muhammad was divine and that Muslims worship Muhammad,” similar 
to some Christians who worship Jesus. The truth is that Muhammad (peace be upon him and his progeny) is no 
more than a chosen messenger of God. He died like any other mortal. Muslims do not believe that Jesus was 
divine (God or part of God). Muslims regard Jesus as a blessed and chosen Prophet of God. 

Misconception #3 -“Women are given an inferior status in Islam” 

Nothing can be farther from the truth. The status of women in Islam is the most misunderstood aspect of the 
religion. According to the Qur’an as well as the sayings of the prophet Muhammad, women are given an 
honorable status in Islam. 

Islam gives women separate legal rights as individuals. Fourteen hundred years ago at the very inception of the 
Islamic faith, by divine decree, women were given the right to divorce, the right to own property in their own 
name which is separate from husband’s property. The women were granted the right of inheritance, the right to 
make last will and testament, and other rights. These rights were not available to women in the western societies 
until the 19th century. 

The Qur’an says: 

“Men shall have the benefit of what they achieve and acquire, and women shall have the benefit of that which 
they similarly achieve and acquire.” (4:32) 

A saying of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh&p) is recorded as follows: “If a daughter is born to a person and he 
brings her up, giving her good education and training in various arts of life, I shall myself stand between him 
and hellfire.” 

According to another saying of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh&p):
“Paradise lies under the feet of the mother.”
God says in the Qur’an about women: “They (women) have rights similar to those against them…”

(i.e., men)
Misconception #4 -“Polygamy is conducive to loose moral behavior”
Islam permits a man to have more than one wife under certain circumstances, but it does not encourage this

practice. In fact polygamy is discouraged. 
The Qur’an says this about polygamy: 

“And if you cannot act equitably towards orphans, then marry such women as seem good to you, two, three, 
and four, but if you may not do justice to them, then marry only one.” (4:3) 

Islam permits polygamy as an alternative to situations which may force a husband to immoral acts. A husband 
may be forced to seek a second wife in the following situations: 

A. Inability of the wife to bear children and the couple choose not to seek divorce. 
B. Prolonged debilitating illness of the wife, where she is unable to provide sexual satisfaction to her husband, 
or carry on her responsibilities in relation to the family. 
C. Prolonged physical separation due to war, travel, etc. 
Polygamy was practiced by all the prophets of the old and their followers, such as Abraham, David, Solomon, 
and others. In the early days of Islam, as a result of successive wars of defense, there was a great shortage of 
men and an over-supply of women. Polygamy was the only honorable way to provide the women, particularly 
the widows and orphans, with food, shelter, and protection. Thus, many moral and social ills were avoided. 

Misconception #5 -“Islam was spread with the sword” 

In the past, Muslim kings, or more appropriately, kings who were Muslims, conquered many lands; but a 
distinction has to be made between lands conquered by these kings and imposition of Islam on its people. Islam 
does not believe in force, coercion, or lure of material benefits to spreads the faith. Muslims believe that God 
alone can put faith into the heart of a person. 

“No soul can believe, except by the will of God...” (10:100) 
“Let there be no compulsion in religion.” (2:256) 

There are several examples of the tolerance of Muslims towards other religions. Muslims ruled over Spain for 
many hundreds of years. The Christians and the Jews there were free to practice their in case of murderer or 
mischief on earth, (it is as if he) has killed the whole mankind.” (5:32) 

Misconception #7. “Islam rewards suicide with paradise.” 

This misconception is held by a few, very small, misguided Muslim groups. Fortunately, the overwhelming 
majority of Muslims reject this distorted and extreme view. Taking one’s own life is no different than taking 
someone else’s life. It is a major sin which invokes extreme displeasure and wrath of God. An individual who 
commits suicide or deliberately takes the life of another innocent human, invokes wrath of God and becomes 
liable to enduring punishment in the life hereafter. 

Misconception #8. “Islam condones terrorism.” 

Islam prohibits terrorism, unlawful acquisition of property of others, and causing harm to innocent human 
beings. Islam rejects all forms of violence. 

Five times every day, at the end of their daily prescribed Prayers, 
Muslims say this “Peace be upon you (all), and Mercy of God and 

Prophet Muhammad (p) was sent as “Mercy to the worlds.” He treated every one with kindness, forgave his 
worst enemies, even though he had full authority and right to punish them. Fallen enemy soldiers were treated 
humanely. He strictly prohibited torture, or mutilation of the bodies of enemies who died on the battlefield 
The terrorist attack on the World Trade Center in New York on September 11, 2001 was condemned by 
Muslims around the world. In fact, those who perished included many Muslims. 

Terrorists have no religion. They kill indiscriminately (even their own). They use the name of religion to 
justify the atrocities, and thus they bring a bad name to the religion. 

The Qur’an says: 

“Any one who has saved one life, (it is as if he) has saved the whole mankind, and any one who has 
killed a human being, except in case of murderer or mischief on earth, (it is as if he) has killed the 
whole mankind.” (5:32) 

Misconception #9. “Hijab (the head scarf and the outer covering) is degrading to women.” 

In fact, it is a sign of dignity and respect for women. It signifies that the worth and value of a woman is not in 
her looks and her physical form. It protects Muslim women from being molested by men. It safeguards the 
woman from being reduced to mere “sex objects.” Islam prohibits women from all acts of lewdness including 
public display of their beauty in any form or manner. 

Islam similarly requires men to practice modesty in their behavior, to cover their private parts, and not to look at 
women with lust. 

In conclusion, Islam upholds the moral and ethical teachings similar to the Abrahamic faiths of Christianity 
and Judaism. In fact, the teachings of the Qur’an as practiced by Prophet Muhammad (p) require a higher code 
of moral and ethical conduct. If a Muslim fall short in his conduct, he is to be blamed, and not the religion 


The Qur’an is a source of knowledge about the Prophet Jesus and his mother Virgin Mary, peace be upon them, 
which is not generally known to those who follow the Christian faith. The Qur’an not only leads us to a better 
understanding of who he was, but also it increases our respect and love for him. The Qur’an was revealed 600 
years after Jesus’ birth. It provides a great perspective, 

“Say: We believe in God and what is revealed to us and what was revealed to Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac 
and Jacob and the tribes, and what was entrusted to Moses and Jesus and the Prophets from their Lord. We 
make no distinction between any of them, and to Him we have surrendered.” (3:84) 

All the Prophets were well aware that they were sent by God Almighty, for the same purpose and with 
the same message: 

“And when We exacted a covenant from the Prophets, and from you (Muhammad), and from Noah and 
Abraham and Moses and Jesus, son of Mary. We took from them a solemn covenant; that He may ask the loyal 
of their loyalty. And He has prepared a painful doom for the unfaithful.” (33:7-8) 

“…messengers We have mentioned to you before and messengers We have not mentioned to you…” (4:164) 

“He has ordained for you that religion which He commanded to Noah, and that which We inspired in you 
(Muhammad), and that which We commanded to Abraham and Moses and Jesus, saying: Establish the religion 
and do not be divided in it!” (42:13) 

Thus, the picture of Jesus in the Qur’an is that of a messenger who, like all the other messengers, was 
sent to the people of his time in fulfillment of God’s comprehensive and universal plan: 

“And We caused Jesus, son of Mary, to follow in their footsteps, confirming what was before him, and We 
bestowed on him the Gospel wherein is guidance and light, confirming that which was before it in the Torah -a 
guidance and a warning to those who are careful.” (5:46) 

Jesus had knowledge of the past and the future: 

“Jesus, son of Mary, said: O Children of Israel! See, I am the messenger of God to you, confirming what was 
before me in the Torah, and bringing good news of a messenger who will come after me, whose name is Ahmad 
(the Praised One)…” (61:6) 

with those who bow (in worship). This is of the news of things hidden. We reveal it to you (Muhammad). 

You were not present with them when they cast their lots, to decide which of them should be the guardian of 
Mary, nor were you present with them when they disputed it. And when the angels said: O Mary! God gives you 
good news of a word from Him, whose name is the Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, exalted in the world and the 
hereafter, and one of those brought near (to God). He will speak to mankind in his cradle and in his manhood, 
and he is of the righteous. She said: My Lord! How can I have a child when no man has touched me? He said: 
It is so. God creates what He will. If He decrees a thing, He says to it only: Be! And it is. And He will teach him 
the Book and the wisdom, and the Torah and the Gospel. And He will make him a messenger to the Children of 
Israel, saying: I come to you with a sign from your Lord. See! I fashion for you out of clay the likeness of a bird, 
and I breathe into it and it is a bird, by God’s will. I heal him who was born blind, and the leper, and I raise the 
dead, by God’s will. And I announce to you what you eat and what you store up in your houses. Here truly is a 
sign for you, if you are believers. And I confirm what was before me of the Torah, and to make lawful some of 
what was forbidden to you. I come to you with a sign from your Lord, so keep your duty to God and obey me. 
God is my Lord and your Lord, so worship Him. That is the straight path. But when Jesus became conscious of 
their disbelief, he cried: Who will be my helpers in the cause of God? The disciples said: We will be God’s 

helpers. We believe in God, and bear you witness that we have submitted. Our Lord! We believe in what You 
have revealed and we follow him whom You have sent. Enroll us among those who bear witness.” (3:42-53) 

An account of the birth of Jesus in the Chapter of the Qur’an titled “Maryam” (Mary): 

“And make mention of Mary in the Book, when she withdrew from her people to a chamber looking East, and 
secluded herself from Jesus’ disciples are mentioned in the Qur’an as follows: “O you who believe! Be 
God’s helpers, even as Jesus, son of Mary, said to the disciples: Who are my helpers for God? They said: We 
are God’s helpers. And a party of the Children of Israel believed, while a party disbelieved….” (61:14) 

Qur’anic description of “The Last Supper.” 

“And when I inspired the disciples: Believe in Me and My messenger, they said: We believe. Bear witness that 
we have submitted. When the disciples said: O Jesus, son of Mary! Is your Lord able to send down for us a table 
spread with food from heaven? He said: Observe your duty to God, if you are true believers. (They) said: We 
wish to eat from it, that we may satisfy our hearts and know that you have spoken the truth to us, and that we 
may be witnesses to this. Jesus, son of Mary, said: O God, our Lord, send down for us a table spread with food 
from heaven, that it may be a feast for us, for the first of us and the last of us, and a sign from You. Give us 
sustenance, for You are the Best of Sustainers. God said: See! I send it down. And whoever disbelieves in you 
afterwards, him I shall surely punish with a punishment with which I have not punished any of (My) creation.” 

Jesus, a servant of God: 

“And when the son of Mary is quoted as an example, behold! The folk laugh out loud, and say: Are our gods 
better, or is he? They raise not the objection but for argument’s sake. No! But they are a contentious people. He 
is nothing but a servant on whom we bestowed favor, and we made him a pattern for the Children of Israel.” 

“…and we caused Jesus, son of Mary, to follow, and gave him the Gospel, and placed compassion and mercy in 
the hearts of those who followed him. But they invented monasticism -which We did not ordain for them -
seeking only God’s pleasure, but they did not for those who disbelieve, I shall chastise them with a heavy 
chastisement in the world and the hereafter; and they will have no helpers. And as for those who believe and do 
good works, He will pay them their wages in full. God loves not the wrong-doers. This We recite to you is a 
revelation and a wise reminder. The likeness of Jesus with God is as the likeness of Adam. He created him of 
dust, and then He said to him: Be! And he was.” (3:55-59) 

“And they say: The Beneficent has taken unto Himself a son. Certainly you utter a disastrous thing, whereby 
almost the heavens are torn, and the earth is split open and the mountains fall in ruins, that you ascribe to the 
Beneficent a son! When it is not fitting for the Beneficent that He should take a son. There is no one in the 
heavens and the earth but that he comes to the Beneficent as a servant.” (19:88-93) 

“And they say: God has taken to Himself a son. Glory be to Him! No! But whatever is in the heavens and earth 
is His. All are subservient to Him, the Originator of the heavens and the earth. When He decrees a thing, He 
says to it only: Be! And it Is.” (2:116-117) 

The Qur’an further rejects that Jesus was “divine” or “God incarnate”: 

“They indeed have disbelieved who say: God is the Messiah, son of Mary. Say: Who then can do anything 
against God, if He willed to destroy the Messiah, son of Mary, and his mother, and everyone on the earth? To 
God is the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them. He creates what He will. And 
God is able to do all things.” (5:17) 

The scenario on the Day of Judgment regarding Jesus’ teachings is foretold: 

“And when God says: O Jesus, son of Mary! Did you say to mankind: Take me and my mother for two gods 
besides God? He there is no god save the One God. If they desist not from saying it, a painful doom will fall on 
those of them who disbelieve. Will they not rather turn to God and seek forgiveness of Him? For God is 
Forgiving, Merciful. The Messiah, son of Mary, was no more than a messenger; messengers had passed away 
before him. And his mother was a saintly woman. But they both used to eat food. See how We make the 
revelation clear for the people, and see how they are turned away!” (5:73-75) 

The Qur’an rejects the doctrine of the crucifixion of Jesus, but affirms his ascension to God: 

“And because of their saying: We killed the Messiah Jesus, son of Mary, God’s messenger -they did not kill 
him or crucify him, but so it was made to appear to them; and look! Those who disagree concerning it are in 
doubt about it; they have no knowledge of it except pursuit of a conjecture; they did not kill him surely; but God 
took him up to Himself. God was ever Mighty, Wise”. (4:157-158) 

The above is a partial listing of verses in the Qur’an about Prophet Jesus, son of Virgin Mary. For a complete 
review please refer to an approved translation of the Qur’an. 


The concept of God is unique in Islam. It not shared by any other religion. He is one, indivisible, and unlike any 
other being in existence. He is uncreated, whereas everything else is His creation. He has no beginning and no 
end. He was not begotten, he has no father, no mother, no son, and no consort. He is sublime and non-physical. 
He has no helpers and no associates. He is omnipotent and omnipresent. He is free of the limitations of time and 
space, because He created time and space, whereas all creation is subject to the limitations of time and space. 
His knowledge is total and comprehensive, i.e. he has knowledge of past, present, future, manifest, and hidden. 
He is aware of human intention, thoughts, and motives. He is fully aware of the innermost thoughts in the heart 
of His subjects. He is kind, compassionate, forgiving, relenting, generous and benevolent. God says in the 
Qur’an that when He intends a thing, He says to it ‘Be’ and it ‘Is’. 


The word “Allah.” Allah is from “Al + ilaha,” which means “The God,” or “The Deity.” This is the proper 
name of God Almighty, the one and the only, the creator of the universe, and everything in it. In the Arabic 
Qur’an, this is the name God gave to Himself. This name has no gender, no plural, and it is unique to Him only. 
Arabic speaking Christians and Jews use the name Allah when referring to God Almighty. 

Who is a Prophet of God? What are the Qualifications of a Prophet of God? 

A Prophet of God according to Islamic belief is a human being who is divinely commissioned to deliver God’s 
message to the people. The message is inspired directly by God, or through the agency of an angel. A Prophet is 
chosen, educated, and guided by God Himself. He possesses highest morals, ethics, and integrity. He is 
unsurpassed in knowledge, piety, love of God, and in his obedience to God. A Prophet of God is totally selfless 
and humble. He is free of sins, blemishes, and ordinary human weaknesses. These credentials are of paramount 
importance for a Prophet of God to be a trustworthy teacher, mentor and guide to his followers. He faithfully 
conveys God’s message in word, spirit, and action. The Qur’an does not ascribe the blemishes, weaknesses and 
sins to the Prophets of God that are found in some of the Biblical narratives. 

Names of Prophets, and other terms in the Arabic Qur’an with corresponding names in 
English Bible: 

Ayyub Job Luq’maan Lok Nuh Noah 
Al-Yash’a Elisha Maryam Mary Qarun Korah 
Dawood David Isma’il Ishmael Saba Sheba 
Fir’aun Pharaoh Ei’sa Jesus Suleiman Solomon 
Haroon Aaron Jibreel Gabriel Taurat Torah 
Ibrahim Abraham Taloot Goliath Uzair Ezra 
Imran Amran Lut Lot Taloot Saul 
Ilyas Elias Majuj Magog Yahya John the Baptist 
Injeel Evangel, Gospel Mika’il Michael Yunus Jonah 
Ishaq Isaac Musa Moses Yusuf Joseph 
Zakariy’ya Zachariah 

What Non-Muslims say about Prophet Muhammad (pbuh&p?) 

“If greatness of purpose, smallness of means, and astounding results are the three criteria of human genius, who 
could dare to compare any great man in modern history with Muhammad?” 

“This man moved not only armies, legislations, empires, peoples and dynasties, but millions of men in one-
third of the then inhabited world; and more than that, he moved the altars, the gods, the religions, the ideas, the 
beliefs and souls …” 

“His forbearance in victory, his ambition, which was entirely devoted to one idea, and in no manner striving for 
an empire …; his endless prayers, his mystic conversation with god, his death and his triumph after death,” 

“Philosopher, orator, apostle, legislator, warrior, conqueror of ideas, restorer of rational dogmas (e.g. unity of 
God and immateriality of God, etc.), of a cult without images, the founder of twenty terrestrial empires and one 
spiritual empire, that is Muhammad. As regards all standards by which human greatness may be measured, we 
may well ask, is there any man greater than he?” 

Lamartine, Histoire de la Turquie, Paris 1854, Vol. II, pp. 276-77. 

“It is not the propagation but the permanency of his religion that deserves our wonder, the same pure and 
perfect impression which he engraved at Mecca and Medina is preserved after the revolutions of twelve 

Edward Gibbon and Simon Ocklay, “History of the Saracen Empire” London 1870, P. 54. 

“He was Caesar and Pope in one; but he was Pope without Pope’s pretensions, Caesar without the legions of 
Caesar: without a standing army, without a bodyguard, without a palace, without a fixed revenue; if ever any man 
had the right to say that he ruled by the right divine, it was Muhammad, for he had all the power without its 
instruments and without its support.” 

Bosworth Smith, “Mohammad and Mohammadanism,” London 1874, P. 92 

“It is impossible for anyone who studied the life and character of the great prophet of Arabia, who knows how he 
taught and how he lived to feel anything but reverence for that mighty prophet, one of the great messengers of the 

Annie Besant, “The life and teachings of Muhammad,” Madras 1932, P. 4 

“His readiness to undergo persecutions for his beliefs, the high moral character of men who believed in him and 
looked up to him as their leader, and the greatness of his ultimate achievement – all argue his fundamental 

W. Montgomery, “Muhammad in Mecca,” Oxford, 1953, P. 52 
“My choice of Muhammad to lead the list of the world’s most influential persons may surprise some readers, and 
may be questioned by others, but he was the only man in history who was supremely successful on both the 
religious and secular level.” 

Michael H. Hart, “The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History,” New York: Hart 
Publishing Company, Inc. 1978, P. 33. 

Genealogy of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh&p) 

Prophet Muhammad’s lineage is traced to Prophet Abraham Peace be upon him. Muhammad belonged to the 
tribe of Quresh. Quresh came from the tribe of Kedar. Kedar descended from Prophet Ishmael, who was the 
older son of Prophet Abraham peace be upon them all. 

According to the Bible, Ishmael was blessed by God, and God made a promise to Abraham that He would make 
Ishmael a nation. “I will make him a great nation.” Genesis 17:20, 21. & 21:18. 

According to the Muslim belief, the advent of Prophet Muhammad was in fulfillment of God’s promise to 
Prophet Abraham (peace be upon them). 

“The Prophet like unto Moses.” 

Who was the prophet “like unto Moses” that the Bible refers to in the verse below? 

“I will raise a prophet like unto thee for them from their own brothers; I will put my words into his mouth and 
he shall tell them all I command him.” Deuteronomy 18:18 

The name of the prophet is not mentioned here but Prophet Muhammad in many ways was “like” Moses. Here 
are a few common things that Moses and Muhammad shared (peace be upon them): Both were given a code of 
Law, both overcame their enemies, both migrated to another land, both established themselves as prophets and 
statesmen, both commanded authority and respect from their people. On a more personal level, both were born a 
natural birth, having a father and a mother. Both married and raised children, and both died a natural death. 

In all the above-mentioned respects, Jesus was “unlike” Moses. Jesus did not bring a new code of Law. He was 
rejected by his people and was overcome by his enemies. He did not establish a State and did not wield political 
authority like Moses did. 

On a personal level, he was born by a miracle, not having a father, and his mother was a virgin. He did not 
marry and did not have children. He did not die a natural death. According to the Bible he was crucified, and 
ascended unto his Lord. 

“The awaited Prophet.” Who was the awaited prophet mentioned in the Bible, Deuteronomy 18:18? 

The Jews sent priests to John the Baptist to ask who he was. They asked “was
he that Prophet?” He answered: “I am not.”

John the Baptist said: “He that cometh after me is mightier” Matthew 11:11 

Jesus said: “I shall ask the Father, and He will give you another advocate
(comforter, protector) to be with you forever, … John 14:16

Jesus was a contemporary of John the Baptist. Thus, chronologically he is not likely the one referred to in the 
verses above. Besides, the Christians generally do not regard Jesus to be a Prophet of God. 

Historically Prophet Muhammad is the only prophet of God who came after Jesus, and who fits into the profile 
of: “like unto Moses” and who spoke God’s Words exactly as were revealed to him by Angel Gabriel. 
Prophet Muhammad’s name was also “Ahmed” meaning "the praised one.” 

The Qur’an asserts that Prophet Muhammad is mentioned (not by his name, but by describing his profile) in the 
older scriptures. 

Truly indeed, there is no god but God


The Qur’an mentions names (attributes) of God, which shed some light upon some of His qualities. These

are listed below: 
O’ Allah (God’s proper name) O’ Most High 
O’ Gracious O’ Forgiving 
O’ Merciful O’Appreciator 
O’ Sovereign Lord O’ Exalted 
O’ Holy O’ Very Great 
O’ Peace O’ Preserver 
O’ Guardian of Faith O’ Maintainer 
O’ Protector O’ Reckoner 
O’ Strong O’ Sublime (Glorious) 
O’ Compelling O’ Generous 
O’ Majestic O’ Watchful 
O’ Creator O’ Responsive 
O’ Evolver O’ All Embracing 
O’ Sculptor O’ Wise 
O’ Forgiving O’ Loving 
O’Dominant O’ Glorious 
O’ Bestower O’ Resurrector 
O’Provider O’ Witness 
O’ Opener O’ Truth 
O’ All knowing O’ Guardian 
O’ Absolute Possessor O’ Mighty 
O’ Grantor in Abundance O’ Firm 
Lit. “Stretches out hand” O’ Protecting Friend 
O’ Praiseworthy 
O’ Abaser O’ Allocator 
O’ Exalter O’ Originator 
O’ Honorer O’ Restorer 
O’ Dishonorer O’ Giver of life 
O’ All Hearing O’ Giver of death 
O’ Seeing O’ Alive 
O’ Judge O’ Self-subsisting 
O’ Justice O’ Finder 
O’ Subtle O’ Honorable 
O’ All Knowing O’ One & Unique 
O’ Clement O’ Free of need 

O’ Most Able 
O’ Powerful 
O’ Expediter 
O’ Delayer 
O’ First 
O’ Last 
O' Manifest 
O’ Hidden 
O’ Governor 
O’ Above reproach 
O’ Source of all Good 
O’ Relenting 
O’ Avenger 
O’ Pardoner 
O’ Indulgent 
Owner of Sovereign 
Lord of Majesty & Bounty 
O’ Equitable 
O’ Gatherer 
O’ Self-sufficient 
O’ Enricher 
O’ Withholder 
O’ Favorably inclined 
O’ Who causes Distress 
O’ Light (Divine) 
O’ Guide 
O’ Creator 
O’ Everlasting 
O’ Inheritor 
O’ Unerring 
O’ Patient 

It is not possible to accurately translate the Arabic names (Attributes) of God into another 
language. Above is an approximation in English language, which is generally agreed upon by 
the experts.

bottom of page